The philosophy of deep ecology originated in the 1970s with the Norwegian philosopher Arne Naess and has since spread around the world. Its basic premises are a belief in the intrinsic value of non-human nature, a belief that ecological principles should dictate human actions and moral evaluations, an emphasis on noninterference in natural processes, and a critique of materialism and technological progress. This book approaches deep ecology as a philosophy, not as a political, social, or environmental movement. In part 1, the authors compare deep ecology's philosophical ideas with other positions and debates in environmental philosophy and to other schools of thought such as social ecology, ecofeminism, and moral pluralism. In part 2, they investigate the connections between deep ecology and other contemporary world views, such as continental philosophy, postmodernism, and non-western philosophical traditions. The first anthology on deep ecology that is not primarily the work of the movement's followers, "Beneath the Surface" offers a rigorous assessment of deep ecology's strengths and weaknesses as a philosophical position.