Recent analyses have shown that about a quarter of all mammal species are threatened with extinction. At the same time, the conservation movement is moving rapidly away from a traditional "protectionist" approach to nature to a more integrated view of wild life and landscape conservation, within the context of human use. This volume provides the first review of modern conservation approaches as they relate to mammals. Bringing together both researchers and conservation managers, it presents perspectives on issues relating to the role of mammals within the conservation movement, how priorities should be set and funds allocated within mammalian conservation and which techniques and approaches are likely to be most successful in conserving mammals in the 21st century. The focus on mammals allows issues of broader conservation relevance to be highlighted, including the integration of species- and biodiversity approaches to conservation, the role of "flagship species" and the need to develop holistic conservation models that relate to the broader context of society and government.