This book is intended for amateurs, students, and teachers. The author presents partial results, which could be obtained with exclusively elementary methods. The proofs are given in detail, with minimal prerequisites. Original features are the ten interludes, devoted to important topics of elementary number theory, thus making the reading of this book self-contained. Their interest goes beyond Fermat's theorem. The Epilogue is a serious attempt to render accessible the strategy of the recent proof of Fermat's last theorem, a great mathematical feat.